It is a fundamental right to have safe drinking water to everyone but unfortunately people from rural, backward and nowadays even the urban people are also seeking pure drinking water.
Water purification is the process of removing the contaminated substances from raw water and make it drinkable to everyone. The main objective of water purification is to provide pure and safe drinking water.
According to the World Health Organization every year more than 3.4 million people die from water-related diseases. It is reported that water-borne diseases are the leading cause of death around the world. It is also stated that four out of every 10 people around the world, especially from Africa and Asia do not have access to safe drinking water.
Only 1% of Earth’s freshwater is in a liquid state and out of that also most of the water has been polluted and many of them are completely contaminated to drink. For this reason, it is very important to purify water supplies.
Studies have shown that without water purification or some of the water treatment, about 90 percent of the world’s water supply is unsuitable for drinking. As a result, unfiltered water may comprise harmful microorganisms and can cause different diseases such as vomiting, diarrhea and even death.
Some of the major methods to purify water
Boiling is the most ancient way of purifying the water and it is still widely used everywhere. It is the easiest, safest and cheapest method of water purification. Water boiled in the 100-degree Celcius will kill viruses, bacteria, and parasites make water clean and safe to drink. Only boiling the water won’t remove chemical pollution such as arsenic. So, it is necessary to purify by settling and filtration methods.
It is the easiest and simplest method of disinfecting to remove pathogens or germs from the drinking water. According to the experts, water boiled for a minimum of 3 minutes kills bacteria or other including disease-causing organisms. However, due to the maximum use of a harmful chemical in the water resources boiling the water is not enough it needs to use other methods to purify it.
Solar Water Purification
Solar water purification is a method in which biologically contaminated water treated with the help of solar energy. This is the most common way of the water treatment process by using solar energy. Using solar energy for water purification has become common as it is a technology solution. The technology grabs heat and energy from the sun and purify the water and make it drinkable for humans. Likewise, Solar distillation is the least costly and reliable method which is especially used in developing countries or rural areas. The process saves fuel and does not require heat or electrical energy. It is also considered as green energy and eco-friendly.
|Solar water helps in improving the microbiological quality of drinking water.||It does not have any effect on chemical water quality.|
|Solar energy is free to use and abundant.||The method depends on a suitable climate or weather condition.|
|This technology is completely pollution free and eco-friendly.||Maintenance is required annually.|
|Solar water filters are one of the efficient technologies.||It can’t supply the water service in a large volume at the same time.|
With the rise of fuel and increasing global warming, solar energy has been considered as a renewable source of energy. Solar-powered water purifiers are one of the efficient technologies which may replace the machine that requires electricity. Maintenance of these solar purifiers is easy and simple. It just needs sunlight to operate and they also do not require much cleaning.
Water filtration is the most common method of purification. It is commonly used for personal consumption due to its versatility and ease of use. The water filtration system comes in many sizes, forms, and designs. There are many technologically advanced filters that can be found in the market. Whereas, in rural areas chlorination and sedimentation process is still in practice for water purification. Drinking water may not have the same toxic substances or contaminants in every place. So that’s why people should choose the specific filter according to the types of waterborne contaminants.
There are many types of countertop water filters such as; filter dispenser, water distiller, water ionizer, reverse osmosis (RO) filter, and sink-top filter. A good filter may tackle a wide spectrum of contaminants from pathogenic bacteria to chlorine taste. However, water filtration alone can’t eliminate all kinds of contaminants from filtered water.
|Capacity to remove harmful contaminants.||Not all kinds of contaminants or bacteria are removed from filtered water.|
|Easy to use and accessible everywhere.||Water filtration has a slow output.|
|Capacity to improve the taste of chlorine or other organic chemicals.||The cartridges may create pollutants to the environment.|
|Water filtration is cost-effective.||The filtration required regular maintenance.|
Water filtration may have the capacity to remove the weighty and intense metals like mercury or remove the taste of chlorine. However, it may not be able to remove pesticides from water which directly affects our health and can cause cancer as well.
Disinfection is the process of removing or eliminate pathogenic microorganisms from the water and make it drinkable. The presence of microorganisms in drinking water will cause people to fall sick. Filtration, flocculation, coagulation, and settling are some of the water treatment techniques which help to kill both harmful and harmless microorganisms. But, disinfection is applied to increase drinking water safety as a final treatment step.
Use of Chlorination for Disinfection
Chlorine is widely used as an effective disinfectant for various purposes such as swimming pools, cooling towers and so on. Chlorine is easy to apply or use due to its solubility, reliability, cheap, and easily accessible. Chlorine is considered as a very toxic substance to most of the microorganisms. It can be found in tablet, liquid, powder, and gas.
According to Drinking Water and Health, “Chlorination is the standard of disinfection against which others are compared”. Chlorination is broadly used in various parts of the country such as the United States, India, China, Nepal, Pakistan and many more. This method can be ascribed to its highly satisfactory performance and convenience as a disinfectant. The chlorination method has been established decades ago and became successful to get rid of waterborne diseases.
UV stands for Ultra Violet rays. UV is a type of energy found in the electromagnetic spectrum placed between visible light and X-rays. UV water purifiers remove the dissolved solids and ions. It exposes the water UV radiations that help to kill the harmful germs, viruses, and bacteria. UV purification system provides a safe solution against chlorine-resistant microorganisms.
The UV light is effective in destroying 99.99 percent of harmful microorganisms without any use of chemicals in the water. Ultraviolet water treatment systems required lamp and sleeve replaced at regular intervals to check they are working effectively or not. It is one of the most expensive water purification systems but the most effective and reliable water treatment.
|Effective in destroying 99.99 percent microorganisms.||The UV elements need to replace at regular intervals.|
|UV purification saves water.||It has limited capacity to remove other contaminants.|
|It is comparatively environmentally friendly.||It is expensive to afford by everyone.|
|The UV purification system is reliable and chemical-free.||The UV light is only able to eliminate microorganisms in water.|
How does UV water purification work?
Ultraviolet water purifier uses a special kind of lamps that emit UV light of radiation at the 254-nm wavelength. The radiation eliminates the DNA of pathogenic microorganisms so they cannot grow. The UV light prevents pathogens and other bacteria from spreading diseases through drinking water. UV generates rays, the mercury is enclosed with quartz bulbs, and the electric current passed through it. The water moved around the bulbs several times. The purifier uses high-frequency light to illuminate water through a glass element. Water passes through the element which gets exposed to the light and certainly kills the microorganisms.